Decreased urine output

One of the primary functions of the kidneys is to produce urine. Decreased urine output or oliguria is a common symptom of kidney failure.

Fluid retention

When the kidneys fail to remove excess fluid from the body, it can lead to swelling in the legs, ankles, feet, face, or hands.

Fatigue and weakness

Buildup of waste products in the blood can cause fatigue and weakness, as the body becomes unable to efficiently remove toxins.

Shortness of breath

Excess fluid buildup can also affect the lungs, leading to difficulty breathing or shortness of breath.

Nausea and vomiting

Buildup of waste products and electrolyte imbalances can cause nausea and vomiting.

Loss of appetite

As kidney function declines, individuals may experience a loss of appetite and weight loss.

Changes in urination

: Besides decreased urine output, other changes in urination patterns may occur, such as frequent urination, foamy urine, or blood in the urine.

Swelling or fluid accumulation

Edema, or swelling, especially in the legs, ankles, feet, or around the eyes, can occur due to fluid retention.


Buildup of waste products in the blood can lead to itching, particularly in the legs.

Muscle cramps and twitching

Electrolyte imbalances, such as high levels of potassium, can cause muscle cramps and twitching.

High blood pressure

Kidney failure can lead to high blood pressure, which can further damage the kidneys and increase the risk of heart disease and stroke.

Difficulty concentrating

Toxins building up in the blood can affect brain function, leading to difficulty concentrating or confusion.