Chronic Alcohol Abuse

Long-term excessive alcohol consumption can lead to alcoholic liver disease, including cirrhosis, which can progress to liver failure.

Viral Hepatitis

Chronic infection with hepatitis B or C viruses can cause inflammation and damage to the liver, leading to cirrhosis and ultimately liver failure.

Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)

This condition is characterized by the accumulation of fat in the liver, often associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. NAFLD can progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis, and liver failure.

Autoimmune Hepatitis

In autoimmune hepatitis, the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the liver, leading to inflammation, scarring, and ultimately liver failure if left untreated.

Genetic Disorders

Inherited conditions such as hemochromatosis, Wilson's disease, and alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency can disrupt liver function and lead to liver failure.

Drug-Induced Liver Injury

Certain medications, herbal supplements, and toxins can damage liver cells and impair liver function, potentially leading to acute liver failure.


Chronic liver diseases, such as chronic hepatitis B or C, alcoholic liver disease, and NAFLD/NASH, can progress to cirrhosis, a condition characterized by extensive scarring of the liver tissue. Cirrhosis can eventually lead to liver failure.

Liver Cancer

Primary liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma) or cancer that has spread to the liver (metastatic liver cancer) can impair liver function and lead to liver failure.

Biliary Tract Disorders

Conditions affecting the bile ducts, such as primary biliary cholangitis or sclerosing cholangitis, can cause bile flow obstruction and liver damage, potentially progressing to liver failure.

Acute Viral Hepatitis

Acute infection with hepatitis A, B, C, D, or E viruses can cause inflammation of the liver, leading to acute liver failure in severe cases.